Sacsayhuaman | Sacsayhuaman Fort Remained a Mystery

Sacsayhuaman | Sacsayhuaman Fort Remained a Mystery

SacsayhuamanNowadays due to the improved technology and advancement in the machinery and tools building a stone wall is not difficult but the Incan empire people have proved their capability long back by building magnificent and huge walls. The Inca Empire is one of the most well known civilizations in the world. Sacsayhuaman is a strongly built wall with stones. It is located on a steep hill of the northern outskirts of the city of Cusco, Peru. Because of its steep and immense terrace walls the area of Sacsayhuaman is frequently referred to as a fort.

Some researchers believe that Sacsayhuaman is a king’s fort. But some others deny saying that the fort was not built in keeping mind of the security measures because an enemy can easily enter the fort and attack. Sacsayhuaman is built by zig-zag shaped big stones. All stones are in different shapes and sizes and even some stones are in 3 meters long sized.

The greatness of the wall is though the stones are of different shapes and sizes all of them are placed in a planned manner. The famous zone of Sacsayhuaman includes its great plaza and its adjacent three massive terrace walls. The stones used in the construction of these terraces are among the largest used in any building of America. The stones are so closely spaced that a single piece of paper will not fit between many of the stones. The longest of three walls in the terrace is about 400 meters. They are about 6 meters tall. The estimated volume of stone is over 6,000 cubic meters. The estimated weight of the largest limestone blocks vary from 128 tonnes to almost 200 tonnes. By standing on the top of the 3701 meters steep wall the complete city can be viewed. Till today no one is aware of the purpose why the historical engineers took up the construction of this magnificent wall. Even sun temple is located at this historical site. So all the religious programs are celebrated at this location. Here Inca festival is celebrated in the month of December. It is also used for jogging and other sports. Now this site has become a famous archaeological site in America and remained as a mystery in the world.

Why Is Alcohol Used In Radiators Of Vehicles In Cold Countries?

Why Is Alcohol Used In Radiators Of Vehicles In Cold Countries?

Radiators Of VehiclesWater has some special properties. One among them is the ability of water in absorbing the heat immensely. Hence, the specific heat parameter of water is very high. For that reason of ability of water in absorbing heat, water is used extensively in radiators and engines of cars to absorb the heat generated quickly. But if the temperature of water becomes less than four degrees Celsius, then it gets expanded in volume.

Hence in the colder western countries, regions of Arctic and Antarctica when the temperature drops to below four degrees Celsius, water expands in its volume and transforms to solid ice form. Hence, density of water decreases. Since the density of ice is less than water, it floats on the water. Snow/Ice floating on water transforms into thick solid form gradually and forms a thick ice layer over small water ponds. Thus, ice covers the entire surface of water. Since ice is a heat insulator, water in the pond below the ice would be maintained with an optimum temperature not less than four degree Celsius. Hence living creatures in water would live comfortably at the bottom of water. This special characteristic of water is called Anomalous Expansion.

Hence when water is used in radiators of cars in colder countries water gets expanded unevenly due to the property of Anomalous Expansion. Due to that, radiator pipes may break. For that reason, in colder countries alcohol is used along with the water in radiators of cars.

What is piezoelectric technology?

What is piezoelectric technology?

piezoelectric technologyRecently the students of ‘American University of Sharjah’ have discovered the instrument which produce electricity from the sounds.  They changed the energy in sounds to electricity with the help of piezoelectric technology.  This instrument identifies the sounds which are not audible to human being.  For example if we put this instrument at the speed breakers then the sounds of the vehicles can change into the electricity and with this electricity we can light the street lamps. This experiment is in early stage.  These types of experiments save the energy sources and save the environment.  Let we hope that this type of experiments will be successful.

Why the Hairs of Paint Brush get separated when put in Water?

Hairs of Paint Brush

Why the Hairs of Paint Brush get separated when put in Water?

The reason for the paint brush to separate its hair in water and it cling with each other when we take it to out side is due to surface tension of water.  According to this, the layers of water have elasticity and tension and they will occupy the less surface area.

When we put paint brush in the water then the water comes in between the hair of the paint brush and turns as layers and then they freely occupy the water.  When we take the brush from water due to less surface area of water again the hair of the brush comes closer. This is the reason for the person who is swimming in the water has got his hair freely in the water and sticks when he comes outside.

What Is The Speciality Of Oresund Bridge?

What Is The Speciality Of Oresund Bridge?

Oresund BridgeThe name of it is oresund bridge tunnel. This is a special type of bridge.  This bridge exists on top of the earth and under the earth also. This bridge connects Malmo city in Sweden with Denmark capital Copenhagen.  After some distance this bridge will be changed as an underwater tunnel. The length of this bridge is about eight k.m.  There are two railway tracks and two road ways on this bridge.  The travel on this bridge is wonderful experience but the travel on this bridge requires the bike with full of petrol and purse with money. Because the toll taxes are very high.  However there are 17,000 vehicles traveling daily on this bridge.  Once we have to travel on this bridge to achieve great feeling.

What are neurotransmitters?

What are neurotransmitters?

neurotransmittersThe chemicals belonging to nervous system are known as neuro transmitters.  In nervous system, the signals go from one place to another place. The nervous cells are known as neurons.  These neurons achieve signals from other cells through dentries.  Oxygen is useful to return the signals back to cells.  The signal from Ogden to another cell passes through the empty place called synapse, which is lie in between the two cells.  The chemicals that are useful to send the information from synapse are called neurotransmitters.  Actually neuro transmitters are the chemicals which are useful to send messages from one cell to another.  Up to 20th century, scientists thought that the information from synapse is transmitted through electricity. In 1921, German pharmacologist Otto Louie (1873-1934) determined that neurons transmit information by releasing chemicals.  He discovered the neurotransmitter called acetylcholine.  But some neurons pass information through electrical synops.

Who invented the method of measuring the distances of Galaxies?

Who invented the method of measuring the distances of Galaxies?

Helen Sawyer Hogg We admire to know that one lady scientist discovered the process of measuring distance between Galaxies.  The lady scientist Helen Sawyer Hogg discovered so many new things by showing special interest on the stars which are in groups.  She also found the distance between the Galaxies which are outside of the Milky Way.  Now-a-days also they are measuring the distances of stars by their brightness.  On those days it is rare for ladies t go to school. But Helen sawyer hog made experiments on planets and stars. She acquired so much of knowledge about sky and she also encouraged her students to discover about space.

Helen was born in 1905, August 1st in Massachusetts.  She achieved Doctorate in 1931 by doing research on space.  She studied in Harvard University.  This University did not used to give doctorates to ladies on those days.  But Helen is the first lady to get the Doctorate from that University.  After getting married she did experiments with her husband.   She was the president of ‘Canadian astronomical society’.

World’s Longest Bridge-Jiaozhou Bay, China-World’s Longest Sea Bridge

World’s Longest Bridge-Jiaozhou Bay, China-World’s Longest Sea Bridge

Jiaozhou BayChina opened the longest sea bridge constructed between Qingdao and Huangdao.  China’s sea bridge broke the record of Lake Pontchartrain Causeway in America of being the longest sea bridge in the world.

World’s Longest Sea Bridge, Longest Sea Bridge China, Jiaozhou Bay Bridge in China, Longest Sea Bridge in China Facts. Y shaped Sea Bridge

China is making the other countries in the world envy with its financial, scientific development.  It is even proving its caliber in construction and engineering technology.  China is the country which is holding the record of fastest transport facilities.  China can boast of many high-speed trains and is presently ready to teach any other country and its latest pride is the world’s longest sea bridge.  The bridge connects Northern port city of Qingdao and industrial suburb of Huangdao.  This bridge has broken the present world record of longest bridge and China has announced that it will soon construct another longest bridge. These sea bridges are the examples of China’s latest developments in Engineering and Designing fields.

Till recently Lake Pontchartrain Causeway in Louisiana State of America holds the record of being the longest sea bridge.  Length of this bridge is 38 kms.  China has constructed a bridge in Jiaozhou Bay and its length is 4 kms more than the Ponchartrain Bridge.

  • China’s Y shaped 110 feet wide bridge reduces the distance between Qingdao and Huangdao by at least 30kms and the traveling time between these places will come down to 20 minutes from 40 minutes.
  • Longest Sea Bridge is completely designed by China Engineers.  Many latest methods have been followed in the construction of the bridge.  A tunnel was built under the bridge and this tunnel is meant to lessen the traffic on the bridge in future.

Seven of the ten longest bridges in the world are in China.  There are rail bridges, sea bridges and Land-Sea bridges in China.  Danyang-Kunshan Grand Bridge is the longest bridge constructed on both sea and land.  Length of this bridge is 102 miles. China which has broke America’s record of having the longest sea bridge is planning to construct another bridge by 2016 whose length will be nearly 30 miles and will join Hong Kong, Macau, Guangdong provinces.

Facts of China’s Longest Sea Bridge in Qingdao

  • Length: Length of the bridge is 26.4 miles.
  • Width: Six way express high way
  • It is estimated that more than 30,000 cars will travel on this bridge.
  • The bridge will not be affected even by an earth quake of magnitude 8.  Severe cyclones also will not affect the bridge.
  • 4,50,000 tons of iron, 2.3 million cubic meters concrete are used in the construction of the bridge.  5,200 pillars were built for the bridge.
  • 10,000 workers completed the construction of the bridge in four years time.
  • Total expenditure for the construction of the bridge is $ 88 Billion (Rs. 3.87 lakh crores).
  • Vehicles can travel on this bridge free for one month but after that each car that travels on this bridge will have to pay Rs. 350 or 4.80 pounds.

Why the Stream of Water Gets Thinner While Falling from the Tap?

Why the Stream of Water Gets Thinner While Falling from the Tap?

Stream of Water

Stream of Water

When the water falls from the tap, the stream of water gets thinner as it falls. According to a principle, when the water is falling equally, it should have the same volume in any two cross section areas. But as the water falls from the tap, speed of the water increase due to gravitational force. So there is situation where more amount of water is flown in the next second than the before second. As the volume of the water should be same when it flows down, it starts getting thin. So, water will have more width when it falls from the tap and decreases later on.

Why Holes Are Present On Swiss cheese?

Why Holes Are Present On Swiss cheese?

 

 

Swiss cheese

Swiss cheese

Cheese is the material which is made of milk. There are different kinds of cheese according to the areas and regions. Cheese which is prepared in North America is called as Swiss cheese. There will be holes in this cheese and they are called as eyes. There are two types of Swiss cheese which is prepared in America. Cheese which is made from fatless milk is called as lace Swiss cheese. Cheese which is made from the milk which contains fat is called as baby Swiss cheese. Holes in the Swiss cheese are formed due to the gas released by bacteria. Three types of bacteria are used in the preparation of Swiss cheese and a main bacterium which is used is called as propionibacterium shermanii. This bacterium is used in the final stage of the preparation of cheese. This bacteria releases carbon dioxide when it reacts with the lactic acid which is released by other bacteria in the milk. Holes are formed on the cheese due to the bubbles released by carbon dioxide. The size of the hole depends on the temperature in which the cheese is manufactured and it also depends on the time which is used for storing the cheese.

 

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